There has been a strong political consensus that greater school autonomy and local decision making improves public education. There is little evidence for this consensus. Instead, evidence indicates greater autonomy has increased inequalities across education systems. This study aims to identify the barriers and enablers for social justice within this policy of autonomy. Through broad and in-depth methods of research across four Australian states (Victoria, Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland), the study aims to generate an evidence base and new knowledge in the form of dilemma cases, position papers and a practice framework to support social justice through school autonomy reform.